Sunday, August 23, 2020

Rajasaurus, the Deadly Indian Dinosaur

Rajasaurus, the Deadly Indian Dinosaur Otherwise called theropods, meat-eating dinosaurs-including raptors, tyrannosaurs, carnosaurs, and such a large number of other - saurs to list here-had a wide conveyance during the later Mesozoic Era, from around 100 to 65 million years back. An in any case unremarkable predator, with the exception of its little head peak, Rajasaurus lived in what is presently current India, not a productive area for fossil revelations. It has assumed control more than 20 years to recreate this dinosaur from its dispersed stays, found in Gujarat in the mid 1980s. (Dinosaur fossils are moderately uncommon in India, which clarifies why the lofty word Raja, which means ruler, was offered on this flesh eater. Strangely, the most well-known Indian fossils are familial whales dating from the Eocene age, a large number of years after the dinosaurs went terminated!) For what reason did Rajasaurus have a head peak, an uncommon component in carnivores that said something the one-ton-and-over range? The most probable clarification is this was an explicitly chosen trademark, since beautifully peaked Rajasaurus guys (or females) were progressively alluring to the other gender during mating season-therefore assisting with spreading this attribute through succeeding ages. Its likewise important that Carnotaurus, a nearby contemporary of Rajasaurus from South America, is the main recognized meat-eating dinosaur with horns; maybe there was something in the transformative air in those days that chose for this trademark. It might likewise be the situation that the peak of Rajasaurus flushed pink (or some other shading) as a methods for flagging other pack individuals. Presently that weve set up that Rajasaurus was a meat-eater, what, precisely, did this dinosaur eat? Given the lack of Indian dinosaur fossils, we can just hypothesize, however a decent up-and-comer would be titanosaurs-the massive, four-legged, little brained dinosaurs that had a worldwide circulation during the later Mesozoic Era. Obviously, a dinosaur the size of Rajasaurus couldnt would like to bring down a full-developed titanosaur without anyone else, yet its conceivable that this theropod chased in packs, or that it took out recently incubated, old, or harmed people. Like different dinosaurs of its sort, Rajasaurus most likely preyed sharply on littler ornithopods and even on its kindred theropods; for all we know, it might even have been a periodic barbarian. Rajasaurus has been delegated a kind of huge theropod known as an abelisaur, and was hence firmly identified with the eponymous individual from this sort, the South American Abelisaurus. It was likewise close family to theâ comically short-outfitted Carnotaurus referenced above and the alleged savage dinosaur Majungasaurus from Madagascar. The family similarity can be clarified by the way that India and South America (just as Africa and Madagascar) were consolidated in the mammoth mainland Gondwana during the early Cretaceous time frame, when the last regular precursor of these dinosaurs lived. Name: Rajasaurus (Hindi/Greek for sovereign reptile); articulated RAH-jah-SORE-us Living space: Forests of India Recorded Period: Late Cretaceous (70-65 million years back) Size and Weight: Around 30 feet in length and one ton Diet: Meat Recognizing Characteristics: Moderate size; bipedal stance; unmistakable peak on head

Friday, August 21, 2020

Ghandi Speech Essay

Whatever degree does Gandhi utilize moderately basic linguistic structure, communicating ethos and emotion, to speak to a bigger crowd. The ‘Quit India’ discourse was given by Mahatma Gandhi on August eighth of 1942. â€Å"Let me clarify my position clearly†, Gandhi stated, to start his first point. He utilizes straightforward linguistic structure when giving this discourse since he needs his focuses to be made more â€Å"clearly†. All through the entire discourse, Gandhi’s communicates in utilizing extremely essential language, along these lines engaging an a lot bigger crowd, of individuals as opposed to a chosen few. Gandhi utilizes ethos and poignancy so as to enrapture and captivate his crowd. Gandhi said â€Å"I need you to know and feel that there is only most perfect Ahimsa in all that I am stating and doing today.† He tends to the crowd utilizing â€Å"you† to make everything more straightforward and individual. Ethos and senti ment is likewise utilized all through this discourse to pick up believability of the individuals, persuading them into â€Å"joining† the â€Å"Quit India† development he is publicizing. â€Å"It is to join a battle for such majority rules system that I welcome you today.†, Gandhi said. â€Å"The power, when it comes, will have a place with the individuals to the individuals of India, and it will be for them to choose to whom it set and entrusted.† Promoting congress and dismissing fascism are the two greatest subjects Gandhi is attempting to help in this discourse. What's more, that is the reason the above extract is such a significant sentence to the discourse. Another methodology Ghandi consolidated was the reiteration of the word â€Å"we† all through the entire discourse. This was to assign that he is the voice of the individuals of India, not simply voicing out his own individual sentiment. â€Å"We must dispose of this inclination. Our squabble isn't with the British individuals, we battle their imperialism.† When giving a discourse, it is significant to know who your target group is. That way it will make it simpler for you to convince them since you comprehend what they are about. Mahatma Ghandi utilized this sign so as to convince his crowd and gave his discourse important. In â€Å"Quit India†, he utilized straightforward sentences and being progressively casual so as to draw in and keep the audience’ consideration. By and large, the intensity of discourse is so fantastic and can affect something beyond the target group. Yet, with the end goal for that to happen, the speaker must pick their words carefully, not simply writing down everything that rings a bell when given a theme. Not every person needs to peruse something that is not kidding and not every person is proficient, particularly during the time Mahatma Ghandi was conveying this discourse. Along these lines, assembling andâ delivering this discourse was significant so as to pull in individuals from every single diverse ethnicity and political perspectives. â€Å"Quit India† was n ot only a discourse proposed for a select crowd, however it is a discourse expected for each person to hear and decipher in their own particular manner. That is the virtuoso of Gandhi’s essential, yet meaninful, and relatable, grammar utilized through this discourse.

Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Google vs. Oracle Case Study - Free Essay Example

Google vs. Oracle Intellectual Property Right (IPR) IPR which is short for Intellectual Property Right is a right given by the government to people with tension to create a physical product/service. An intellectual property is not an idea alone. For example, an idea for a book would not be classified as an intellectual property, however the words written in the book would be. Different types of Intellectual property protection (IPP) would be Patent, Copyright, Trademarks and designs. IPR gives the creator the ability to work on their own product without having to worry about others stealing from them. By protecting your product you stop others from copying your invention, design, name of your brand and written scripts you already produced. What is Copyright? An Intellectual Property Right which Google was accused of would be Copyright. In many cases Copyright is granted to the originator for a certain amount of years which gives them the creator the permission to exploit a musical, literary, or other artistic work, such as recording in the form of print, audio and video etc This means that from the moment you create something and successfully copyright it, the product/service belongs to you and only you. Becoming the l egal owner of the product gives you the exclusive right to display, perform, copy and distribute the product elsewhere. Once the product is captured in a fixed format such as being recorded or written down then ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s protected by copyright automatically without having to use the copyright symbol. However, it would be a good idea to use the copyright symbol as it would remind people that your product/service is protected by copyright. Ideas, facts and logos are not protected by the Copyright law. However, logos could be protected by the Trademark law. In some cases using Copyright material in commentary, news reporting, research and education could result in fair use. The fair use of a Copyrighted material would be dependent on the userà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s purpose. For example, if you intend to use Copyrighted material to derive financial or other business benefit, then it would not be considered as fair use. Fair use also considers the effect on the market or th e potential market. If your use is likely to results in economic loss of the copyright holder then it is less likely to be considered as fair use which could result in lawsuits. Googleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s product for smartphones Over the years Google has changed the business of electronics worldwide. Achieving many goals over the years such as being the most used search engine in the world. One of Googleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s successes would be Android. Google had bought Android Inc. in August 2005 where their plans were to use Androids software in mobile devices. Discussions about licencing Java from Sun were also made. Google had two choices, they were either going to carry on with the Java to be the platform for Android and defend their decision or accept Microsoftà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s platform for Android. Over the next couple of months Google and Sun were trying to negotiate to licence Java but fail to settle an agreement. 1 year later (February 2006) Google receives an offer f rom Sun which supposedly offers a 3 year Java licensing for $25 million. The price also considers Googleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Android Revenue which Google rejects later on. On November 5, 2007 Google introduced Android, the first open platform for mobile devices. The Android is the furthermost used mobile Operating System, as of 2013, which had the highest selling OS overall. Smartphones with Android Operating System sell more than IOS, Mac OS X and Windows devices put together. In April 2013, a total of 71% of the mobile developers were developing and working for Android. This clearly shows us that Google was growing as an OS provider for major brands such as Samsung, HTC, and Motorola etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ The first Android OS device was released in October 2008, called the HTC dream. Intellectual Property Right issues which Android faced The Android OS has successfully made it to the top of the board for being the most popular mobile Operating System. However, with success co me failures. When Google introduced the Android Operating System back in 2007, Oracle (which specialises in developing computer hardware systems and enterprise software products) had a reason to believe that Google was using parts of Oracles Application Program Interface (API) Java scripts which was protected by Copyright. When Android was first introduced, Google stated that Android will be running of a Linux kernel which included a machine called Dalvik. The Dalvik machine would be compatible with Java. This resulted in Copyright issues as the Java patents and copyright were inherited by Sun which Oracle acquires in January 2010. Because of this reason Oracle organises a meeting with Googleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s lawyer to discuss the infringement against Oracles patents (API) in July2010. Google was legitimately accused of infringing parts of Oracles Java patents and ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s copyright. The lawsuit was filed in August 12, 2010 against Google. Although Google denied such allegation, Java played a key role in Androids success to be the most used Operating System in smartphones. Other IPR lawsuits were also filed against Android. Google faced many lawsuits by major companies such as Apple, Microsoft etc As Android was increasing its value other companies were trying to overthrow Android from becoming the most popular mobile Operating System. Court Hearing When Google was taken to court for infringement, Oracle sought a total damage of $6.1 billion for misusing Oracles Java Patents and copyright in Googleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Android OS. An enormous amount such as $6.1 billion which was requested by Oracle could have put Google and all of its associates at risk. As the Android Operating System is being used in most smartphones the damages would have affected major mobile phone companies such as Samsung and HTC etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Luckily, this valuation was turned down by a US Federal judge who requested Oracle to review and recalculate the estimate. The reason for this is because Oracles Java patents and copyright were said to be invalid. In May 2011, the allegations which Oracle had on Google were dismissed as Google was not found guilty of infringing on Oracles java patents and copyright. The trial jury also stated that the Java APIs which Google used was not copyrightable. In this case, Google did not receive any penalties nor did Oracle. The US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit later on ruled in Oracles favour by remanding issues for fair use regarding copyright to the district court. Oracleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Appeal to the Federal Circuit After the court hearing, there were no claims found. However, Oracle believed that they were liable for damages for infringement to their Java API. So, they appealed to the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit ruled in Oracles favour by reversing the issue about APIà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s not being copyrightable. In this case Google cross appealed to the Feder al Circuit for continues copying right claims. The hearing for this took place on December 4, 2013. A verdict was released on May 9, 2014. The verdict clearly stated that Application Program Interface were copyrightable as for the structure, organisation and structure. As a result Oracles claims for API copyright were found liable. However, the verdict was not final as the Federal Circuit reconsidered the case of the fair use defence. Defence During the Court hearing Google took several actions to protect their Product from allegations such as copyright lawsuits. One of them would be the fact that Google requested the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to inspect Oracles patents. The results would be that only two patents were valid from the seven patents Oracle accused Google of infringing. In regards to the lawsuits which were filed against Google by other companies such as Oracle. Google purchased Motorola Mobility for a total of $12.5 billion. In regards to protect Androi d, Google saw the need to purchase new patents from companies such as Motorola Mobility and IBM. The reason why Google took this root is because Motorola Mobility had more than 17,000 patents registered. Thousands of patents were also bought from IBM. By doing so, Android stood a better chance for Intellectual Property Right prosecutions. Supreme Court FAQ What type of benefits does a Copyright Intellectual Property Right give the creator Reference and Further reading Googleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Android Operating System and legal issues Oracles Lawsuit Against Google The timeline of the Java lawsuit against Google An overview of Intellectual Property Oracleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s appeal to the Federal Circuit Googleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s appeal to the Supreme Court

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Ordinal Number Definition and Examples

An ordinal number is a number that indicates position or order in relation to other numbers: first, second, third, and so on. Contrast these types of numbers with cardinal numbers  (in math theyre also called natural numbers and integers), those numbers that represent countable quantity.   Ordinal numbers  do not represent quantity, notes Mark Andrew Lim, but rather indicate rank and position, such as the fifth car, the twenty†fourth bar, the second highest marks, and so on(The Handbook of Technical Analysis, 2012). Learning Ordinals If you are teaching ordinals to English language learners, introduce the concept by reviewing cardinal numbers. Then continue with the ordinals to contrast the concepts. Also, introduce the term last as a position vocabulary word. Examples of Ordinals All ordinal numbers carry a suffix: -nd, -rd, -st, or -th.  Ordinal numbers can be written as words (second, third) or as numerals followed by abbreviations  (2nd, 3rd). first (1st)second (2nd)third (3rd)fourth (4th)fifth (5th)sixth (6th)seventh (7th)eighth (8th)ninth (9th)tenth (10th)eleventh (11th)twelfth (12th)twentieth (20th)twenty-first (21st)twenty-second (22nd)twenty-third (23rd)twenty-fourth (24th)thirtieth (30th)one hundredth (100th)one thousandth (1,000th)one millionth (1,000,000th)one billionth (1,000,000,000th) Using Ordinal Numbers and Cardinal Numbers Together When a cardinal number and an ordinal number modify the same noun, the ordinal number always precedes the cardinal number: The first two operations were the most difficult to watch. The second three innings were quite dull. In the first example, the ordinal number first precedes the cardinal number two. Both first and two are determiners. In the second example, the ordinal number second precedes the cardinal number three. Both second and three are determiners. Try reading the sentences with the ordinal and cardinal numbers reversed. They simply sound wrong.(Michael Strumpf and Auriel Douglas, The Grammar Bible. Owl Books, 2004) More Tips on Using Ordinal Numbers Spell out ordinal numbers—first, second, third, fourth—except when quoting from another source. In the interests of saving space, they may also be expressed in numerals in notes and references. ... Use words for  ordinal numbers in names, and for numerical street names ... : the Third Reich the Fourth Estate a fifth columnist Sixth Avenue a Seventh-Day Adventist ... Use figures for ages expressed in cardinal numbers, and words for ages expressed as ordinal numbers or decades: a girl of 15 a 33-year-old man between her teens and twenties in his 33rd year (R. M. Ritter, New Harts Rules: The Handbook of Style for Writers and Editors. Oxford University Press, 2005) Do not use the ordinal (th, st, rd, nd) form of numbers when writing the complete date: January 15 is the date for the examination. However, you may use the ordinal suffixes if you use only the day: The 15th is the date for the examination. ... Write out ordinal numbers when they contain just one word: third prize, tenth in line, sixtieth anniversary, fifteenth birthday. Use numerals for the others: the 52nd state, the 21st Amendment.(Val Dumond, Grammar for Grownups. HarperCollins, 1993)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

[Writer Name] [Supervisor Name] [Subject] [Date] History...

[Writer Name] [Supervisor Name] [Subject] [Date] History of the English Language and some of the many Factors that have influenced its Evolution Language is surely the most influential form of communication. It is the most powerful instrument an individual can have. By definition, language is the use voice sounds by human beings, organized in order to express and communicate thoughts and feelings. It is what has shaped our society into what it has become today, what has allowed our civilization to excel and progress into what is now modern day. Language has allowed the individual to communicate within a group as well as within him in order to accomplish many goals. Language gives us a means by which we can organize our ideas and†¦show more content†¦And semantic indeterminacy is the ether of attitude of language. It fills the interstices of our intentions and pervades accounts of presupposition, tense, fiction, translation, and especially, elusiveness. Language is primar ily formed through the interaction of people. This interaction could be of any nature, but in today’s world when English is undoubtedly the universal language, external factors play a pivotal role in English language’s evolution. Therefore, it would be imperative to look at the influences of these factors on the English language. The English language of today reflects many centuries of development (Naomi 24). The political and social events that have in the course of English history so profoundly affected the English people in their national life have generally had a recognizable effect on their language. The Christianizing of Britain brought England into contact with Latin civilization and made significant additions to our vocabulary. The Scandinavian invasions resulted in a considerable mixture of the two races and their languages. The Norman Conquest made English for two centuries the language mainly of the lower classes, while the nobles and those associated wit h them used French on almost all occasions (Baugh 2). And when English once more regained supremacy as the language of all elements of the population, it greatly changed in both form and vocabulary from what it had been in the 11th century.Show MoreRelatedOn Job Training Report3246 Words   |  13 PagesCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background The job training is an obligatory subject for all seventh semester students in English Department, Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts. They must fulfill 100 hours or about one month to do job training in the chosen institution or company. The job training program is an activity done by the students to get experiences in subjects in the real work world. 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Drinking Alcohol Essay Example For Students

Drinking Alcohol Essay Alcohol and TeensFrom pastures to unsupervised blowouts at home, the social calendars of most teens are full of alcohol. Other drugs rise and fall in popularity from generation to generation, but alcohol never really goes out of style. From being worshiped by the ancient Babylonians to being forbidden to teenagers, alcohol has caused many problems. Today, drinking is the drug of choice by teens and causes most wrecks and deaths today. To understand alcohol people must first know the history of alcohol, the effects of teen drinking, and the solutions to teen drinking. Alcohol has been all around the world for centuries and has become a custom of people all over. No one knows for sure who discovered alcohol, but we know how different types of alcohol are made. Just as well, no know knows when alcohol was discovered. There are no records of the discovery or discoverers of alcohol. Although historians do know alcohol was used by primitive people and recorded as early as 10,000 years ago in the Neolithic period and by European civilization(Milgram 22). As early as 5000 B.C., the ancient Babylonians brewed, the process of making beer, their beer in religious temples because it was considered a gift from God. Beer is an alcoholic beverage made by fermentation of cereal grains such as, wheat, rye, corn, or barley; beer contains 3 to 6 percent alcohol. Besides the ancient Babylonians, the ancient Egyptians drank beer. The Egyptians called their beer hek, which was made from barley bread. The bread was crumbled into jars, covered with water, and allowed to ferment. The Egyptian pharaohs blessed this beer in the honor of the goddess of nature, Isis. Egyptians handed out free jugs of beer to peasant workers, and by no surprise drunkenness was a common problem in ancient Egypt (Nielsen 13). The strongest alcohol drinks are called liquors or spirits. An Arabian alchemist named Geber discovered liquor in the eighteenth century A.D. Geber made liquor by distillation, burning away the impurities that formed in wine during fermentation and isolated the remaining liquids. As a result, the concentrated liquid had a higher alcoholic content, which was mainly flavored alcohol and water(Milgram 65). Arnaud de Villanueva discovered liquor in Europe 500 years later, when he made brandy. Arnaud claimed that brandy would cure all humanitys diseases, prolong life, maintain youth, and clear away ill humor. In the 1600s gin, akravit, and whiskey were discovered in many other countries. Then in the 1700s, the Americans invented bourbon. Teenagers rarely think before they do many things. Many times teenagers go to big blowouts or little get togethers with their friends. Their first thought is not about death, their grades, or alcoholism; their main purpose is to get drunk fast and sober up before going home by their set curfews. At parties, teenagers have an average of five or more beers in one night. In the United States teenage drinking has become a major problem, with about 3.3 million teens as problem drinkers. One-fourth of all seventh through twelfth graders admit to drinking at least once a week(Nielson 47). About forty percent of twelfth graders said they had one episode of heavy drinking in the past two weeks. Although no one knows why teens turn to drinking, various studies show that the amount of alcohol changes by their geographical location (Nielsen 47). One major problem with teens and alcohol is death. Many teenagers go to parties and drive home thinking that everything is all right, but twenty- one percent of young drivers involved in fatal crashes have been drinking (MADD 1). On a normal weekend, an average of one teenager dies in a car crash every hour, and nearly fifty percent of these crashes were involved with alcohol. Uses of alcohol and other drugs are associated with the leading causes of death and injury among teenagers and young adults (NCADD 1). Not only do car wrecks kill teenagers, so does compulsive drinking. Alcohol, a depressant on the central nervous system, is detectable when someone begins to have slurred speech, slow reaction time, or staggered walking (Milgram 20). The more a person drinks the higher the risk of having an alcohol over dose. Some signs of an overdose are mental confusion, stupor, coma, seizures, bluish skin color, low body temperature, slow or irregular breathing, and vomiting while sleeping(Al cohol Education Program 4). If these symptoms appear, call 911 for an ambulance, but never leave the victim alone. Effectiveness of Signals Intelligence EssayOther countries can also help by raising their drinking age to 21 years of age. Many places in the world a person must be 18 to drink, but in Germany he or she only has to be 16 (Net Biz 1). Canada has made it legal for people 18 and older to drink, but they also have the stiff minimum penalties for driving under the influence. Since that law, drinking offenses have plunged twenty-three percent. Along with Canada, drunken drivers in Finland, Sweden, England, and France receive automatic jail sentences and lose their licenses for at lease a year (Neilson 61). If other countries would raise drinking to age 21, then it would be tough for teenagers to get their alcohol. It is easy for teenagers that live in states bordering Canada or Mexico to bootleg across the border to the United States. By raising the age limits to 21 in Mexico and Canada, it would help cut down on teenage drinking. Everyday teenagers drink, despite the many dangers and ri sks that they are taking every time they drink. Throughout history and probably in the future, alcohol will be the leading drug of choice for teenagers. On the other hand, teenagers in turn are becoming better educated about themselves and the risk of alcohol. Work CitedAlcohol Education Program For Minors. Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, 1994. Mothers Against Drunk Drivers. Drinking Driving and Other Drugs. Homepage. 20 June 2001. ;;Milgram, Gail. Coping with Alcohol. New York: The Boston Publishing Group1987. NCADD. Youth, Alcohol, and Other Drugs. Homepage. 20 June 2001. ;;Net Biz Mentor. Underage Drinking. Homepage. 20 June 2001. ;;Nielson, Nancy. Teen Alcoholism. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc., 1990. OBrien, Robert, Morris Chafetz, Sidney Cohen. Understanding Alcohol And Other Drugs. Vol. 1. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1999.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020


QUINTO INFORME SOBRE LA SITUACIN DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN GUATEMALA CAPTULO X LOS DERECHOS DE LOS PUEBLOS INDGENAS Introduccin 1. Los derechos humanos de los individuos y pupueblos indgenas de Guatemala, aproximadamente la mitad de la poblacin total, han sido objeto de constante atencin de la Comisin[1]. El pueblo maya, el mayor en nmero de integrantes, comprende las comunidades lingsticas Achi', Akateco, Awakateco, Ch'orti', Chuj, Itza, Ixil, Popti', Q'anjob'al, Kaqchikel, K'iche', Mam, Mopan, Poqomam, Pocomchi', Q'eqchi', Sakapulteko, Sipakapense, Tektiteko, Tz'utujil y Uspanteco.[2] La poblacin indgena esta tambin integrada por los pocos sobrevivientes del antiguo pueblo xinca, y por el pueblo garfuna, este ltimo de races indgenas y africanas ubicado en areas cercanas a la costa atlntica de Guatemala. 2. Por su conformacin poblacional Guatemala es un Estado multitnico, multilinge y pluricultural. 3. La poblacin de Guatemala es en su mayora rural. El 65%[3] de los habitantes residen en zonas rurales, y de ellos 52%[4] son indgenas, mayora que es ms pronunciada en los departamentos alejados de la capital. Los indgenas constituyen algo menos de la mitad de la poblacin urbana[5]. 4. Los indgenas en Guatemala histricamente han sido discriminados tnicamente, constituyen gran parte de la poblacin pobre o en extrema pobreza y son mayora en los departamentos con los ms altos ndices de exclusin social. Lo mismo ocurre en asentamientos urbanos marginales. Sin embargo, rurales o urbanos, mantienen en todas las regiones, una actividad y organizacin social intensa y una cultura rica y en continua adaptacin a las exigencias de los cambios histricos, defendiendo y desarrollando su identidad cultural. A. Marco jurdico 5. La legislacin en Guatemala contiene una serie de normas especficas y dispersas, de rango constitucional y legal, sobre los pueblos indgenas. La tendencia legislativa de la ltima dcada en esta materia se ha caracterizado por incorporar en el ordenamiento legal normas de reconocimiento y proteccin en favor de los indgenas, en relacin por ejemplo con la proteccin del nio o la nia indgena, la promocin de la educacin bilinge intercultural, la creacin de instituciones de proteccin y defensa de la mujer indgena, entre otras. 6. La Constitucin Poltica de la Repblica reconoce que el Estado est formado por diversos grupos tnicos y asegura reconocer, respetar y promover sus formas de vida, costumbres y tradiciones. Proteccin a grupos tnicos. Guatemala est formada por diversos grupos tnicos entre los que figuran los grupos indgenas de ascendencia maya. El Estado reconoce, respeta y promueve sus formas de vida, costumbres, tradiciones, formas de organizacin social, el uso del traje indgena en hombre y mujeres, idiomas y dialectos. [6] 7. En 1997 entr en vigencia en Guatemala el Convenio 169, sobre pueblos indgenas y tribales en pases independientes, de la Organizacin Internacional del Trabajo (O.I.T.) que es el instrumento internacional de derechos humanos especfico ms relevante para los derechos de los indgenas, que establece que : Los pueblos indgenas y tribales debern gozar plenamente de los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, sin obstculos ni discriminacin. Las disposiciones de este Convenio se aplicarn sin discriminacin a los hombres y mujeres de esos pueblos.[7] B. LOS INDGENAS GUATEMALTECOS Y EL CONFLICTO ARMADO (1962-1996) 8. La cifra total de vctimas de la violencia politica en este perodo ha sido estimada por investigaciones y estudios en ms de doscientas mil, sea personas muertas o desaparecidas forzosamente, consecuencia del conflicto armado en Guatemala ocurrido entre los aos 1962 y 1996.[8] La gran mayora de las vctimas fueron guatemalteco-mayas. 9. Los guatemalteco-mayas representaron el 83% de las vctimas plenamente identificadas por la Comisin para el Esclarecimiento Histrico[9], (CEH) en su trabajo de documentacin de las violaciones de los derechos humanos y hechos de violencia vinculados al enfrentamiento armado. En su labor de documentacin la CEH identific 42.275[10] vctimas hombres, mujeres y nios de las que 23.671 fueron vctimas de ejecuciones arbitrarias y 6.159 vctimas de desaparicin forzada. 10. La poltica contrainsurgente en Guatemala se caracteriz en varios perodos por acciones militares destinadas a la destruccin de grupos y comunidades como tales, as como al desplazamiento geogrfico de comunidades indgenas cuando se las consideraba posibles auxiliares de la guerrilla. En el perodo ms violento del conflicto armado (1978-1983), bajo las presidencias de los generales Romeo Lucas Garca (1978-1982) y Efran Ros Montt (1982-1983) los operativos militares se concentraron en Quich, Huehuetenango, Chimaltenango, Alta y Baja Verapaz, costa sur y ciudad de Guatemala. 11. Las masacres en las aldeas Plan Snchez y Dos Erres ocurridas en 1982 son ejemplos dolorosos de la poltica de exterminio en contra de las comunidades indgenas. El exterminio