Wednesday, July 8, 2020
Google vs. Oracle Intellectual Property Right (IPR) IPR which is short for Intellectual Property Right is a right given by the government to people with tension to create a physical product/service. An intellectual property is not an idea alone. For example, an idea for a book would not be classified as an intellectual property, however the words written in the book would be. Different types of Intellectual property protection (IPP) would be Patent, Copyright, Trademarks and designs. IPR gives the creator the ability to work on their own product without having to worry about others stealing from them. By protecting your product you stop others from copying your invention, design, name of your brand and written scripts you already produced. What is Copyright? An Intellectual Property Right which Google was accused of would be Copyright. In many cases Copyright is granted to the originator for a certain amount of years which gives them the creator the permission to exploit a musical, literary, or other artistic work, such as recording in the form of print, audio and video etc This means that from the moment you create something and successfully copyright it, the product/service belongs to you and only you. Becoming the l egal owner of the product gives you the exclusive right to display, perform, copy and distribute the product elsewhere. Once the product is captured in a fixed format such as being recorded or written down then itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s protected by copyright automatically without having to use the copyright symbol. However, it would be a good idea to use the copyright symbol as it would remind people that your product/service is protected by copyright. Ideas, facts and logos are not protected by the Copyright law. However, logos could be protected by the Trademark law. In some cases using Copyright material in commentary, news reporting, research and education could result in fair use. The fair use of a Copyrighted material would be dependent on the userÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s purpose. For example, if you intend to use Copyrighted material to derive financial or other business benefit, then it would not be considered as fair use. Fair use also considers the effect on the market or th e potential market. If your use is likely to results in economic loss of the copyright holder then it is less likely to be considered as fair use which could result in lawsuits. GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s product for smartphones Over the years Google has changed the business of electronics worldwide. Achieving many goals over the years such as being the most used search engine in the world. One of GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s successes would be Android. Google had bought Android Inc. in August 2005 where their plans were to use Androids software in mobile devices. Discussions about licencing Java from Sun were also made. Google had two choices, they were either going to carry on with the Java to be the platform for Android and defend their decision or accept MicrosoftÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s platform for Android. Over the next couple of months Google and Sun were trying to negotiate to licence Java but fail to settle an agreement. 1 year later (February 2006) Google receives an offer f rom Sun which supposedly offers a 3 year Java licensing for $25 million. The price also considers GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Android Revenue which Google rejects later on. On November 5, 2007 Google introduced Android, the first open platform for mobile devices. The Android is the furthermost used mobile Operating System, as of 2013, which had the highest selling OS overall. Smartphones with Android Operating System sell more than IOS, Mac OS X and Windows devices put together. In April 2013, a total of 71% of the mobile developers were developing and working for Android. This clearly shows us that Google was growing as an OS provider for major brands such as Samsung, HTC, and Motorola etcÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ The first Android OS device was released in October 2008, called the HTC dream. Intellectual Property Right issues which Android faced The Android OS has successfully made it to the top of the board for being the most popular mobile Operating System. However, with success co me failures. When Google introduced the Android Operating System back in 2007, Oracle (which specialises in developing computer hardware systems and enterprise software products) had a reason to believe that Google was using parts of Oracles Application Program Interface (API) Java scripts which was protected by Copyright. When Android was first introduced, Google stated that Android will be running of a Linux kernel which included a machine called Dalvik. The Dalvik machine would be compatible with Java. This resulted in Copyright issues as the Java patents and copyright were inherited by Sun which Oracle acquires in January 2010. Because of this reason Oracle organises a meeting with GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s lawyer to discuss the infringement against Oracles patents (API) in July2010. Google was legitimately accused of infringing parts of Oracles Java patents and itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s copyright. The lawsuit was filed in August 12, 2010 against Google. Although Google denied such allegation, Java played a key role in Androids success to be the most used Operating System in smartphones. Other IPR lawsuits were also filed against Android. Google faced many lawsuits by major companies such as Apple, Microsoft etc As Android was increasing its value other companies were trying to overthrow Android from becoming the most popular mobile Operating System. Court Hearing When Google was taken to court for infringement, Oracle sought a total damage of $6.1 billion for misusing Oracles Java Patents and copyright in GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Android OS. An enormous amount such as $6.1 billion which was requested by Oracle could have put Google and all of its associates at risk. As the Android Operating System is being used in most smartphones the damages would have affected major mobile phone companies such as Samsung and HTC etcÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Luckily, this valuation was turned down by a US Federal judge who requested Oracle to review and recalculate the estimate. The reason for this is because Oracles Java patents and copyright were said to be invalid. In May 2011, the allegations which Oracle had on Google were dismissed as Google was not found guilty of infringing on Oracles java patents and copyright. The trial jury also stated that the Java APIs which Google used was not copyrightable. In this case, Google did not receive any penalties nor did Oracle. The US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit later on ruled in Oracles favour by remanding issues for fair use regarding copyright to the district court. OracleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Appeal to the Federal Circuit After the court hearing, there were no claims found. However, Oracle believed that they were liable for damages for infringement to their Java API. So, they appealed to the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit ruled in Oracles favour by reversing the issue about APIÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s not being copyrightable. In this case Google cross appealed to the Feder al Circuit for continues copying right claims. The hearing for this took place on December 4, 2013. A verdict was released on May 9, 2014. The verdict clearly stated that Application Program Interface were copyrightable as for the structure, organisation and structure. As a result Oracles claims for API copyright were found liable. However, the verdict was not final as the Federal Circuit reconsidered the case of the fair use defence. Defence During the Court hearing Google took several actions to protect their Product from allegations such as copyright lawsuits. One of them would be the fact that Google requested the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to inspect Oracles patents. The results would be that only two patents were valid from the seven patents Oracle accused Google of infringing. In regards to the lawsuits which were filed against Google by other companies such as Oracle. Google purchased Motorola Mobility for a total of $12.5 billion. In regards to protect Androi d, Google saw the need to purchase new patents from companies such as Motorola Mobility and IBM. The reason why Google took this root is because Motorola Mobility had more than 17,000 patents registered. Thousands of patents were also bought from IBM. By doing so, Android stood a better chance for Intellectual Property Right prosecutions. Supreme Court FAQ What type of benefits does a Copyright Intellectual Property Right give the creator Reference and Further reading GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Android Operating System and legal issues https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system) Oracles Lawsuit Against Google https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oracle_Corporation The timeline of the Java lawsuit against Google https://www.pcworld.com/article/253666/a_timeline_of_oracles_java_lawsuit_against_google.html An overview of Intellectual Property https://www.gov.uk/intellectual-property-an-overview/overview OracleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s appeal to the Federal Circuit https://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/05/09/oracle_vs_google_appeal/ GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s appeal to the Supreme Court https://www.theverge.com/2014/10/9/6953215/oracle-v-google-case-supreme-court-hearing
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
An ordinal number is a number that indicates position or order in relation to other numbers: first, second, third, and so on. Contrast these types of numbers with cardinal numbersÃ (in math theyre also called natural numbers and integers), those numbers that represent countable quantity.Ã Ordinal numbersÃ do not represent quantity, notes Mark Andrew Lim, but rather indicate rank and position, such as the fifth car, the twentyÃ¢â¬ fourth bar, the second highest marks, and so on(The Handbook of Technical Analysis, 2012). Learning Ordinals If you are teaching ordinals to English language learners, introduce the concept by reviewing cardinal numbers. Then continue with the ordinals to contrast the concepts. Also, introduce the term last as a position vocabulary word. Examples of Ordinals All ordinal numbers carry a suffix: -nd, -rd, -st, or -th.Ã Ordinal numbers can be written as words (second, third) or as numerals followed by abbreviationsÃ (2nd, 3rd). first (1st)second (2nd)third (3rd)fourth (4th)fifth (5th)sixth (6th)seventh (7th)eighth (8th)ninth (9th)tenth (10th)eleventh (11th)twelfth (12th)twentieth (20th)twenty-first (21st)twenty-second (22nd)twenty-third (23rd)twenty-fourth (24th)thirtieth (30th)one hundredth (100th)one thousandth (1,000th)one millionth (1,000,000th)one billionth (1,000,000,000th) Using Ordinal Numbers and Cardinal Numbers Together When a cardinal number and an ordinal number modify the same noun, the ordinal number always precedes the cardinal number: The first two operations were the most difficult to watch. The second three innings were quite dull. In the first example, the ordinal number first precedes the cardinal number two. Both first and two are determiners. In the second example, the ordinal number second precedes the cardinal number three. Both second and three are determiners. Try reading the sentences with the ordinal and cardinal numbers reversed. They simply sound wrong.(Michael Strumpf and Auriel Douglas, The Grammar Bible. Owl Books, 2004) More Tips on Using Ordinal Numbers Spell out ordinal numbersÃ¢â¬âfirst, second, third, fourthÃ¢â¬âexcept when quoting from another source. In the interests of saving space, they may also be expressed in numerals in notes and references. ... Use words forÃ ordinal numbers in names, and for numerical street names ... : the Third Reich the Fourth Estate a fifth columnist Sixth Avenue a Seventh-Day Adventist ... Use figures for ages expressed in cardinal numbers, and words for ages expressed as ordinal numbers or decades: a girl of 15 a 33-year-old man between her teens and twenties in his 33rd year (R. M. Ritter, New Harts Rules: The Handbook of Style for Writers and Editors. Oxford University Press, 2005) Do not use the ordinal (th, st, rd, nd) form of numbers when writing the complete date: January 15 is the date for the examination. However, you may use the ordinal suffixes if you use only the day: The 15th is the date for the examination. ... Write out ordinal numbers when they contain just one word: third prize, tenth in line, sixtieth anniversary, fifteenth birthday. Use numerals for the others: the 52nd state, the 21st Amendment.(Val Dumond, Grammar for Grownups. HarperCollins, 1993)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
[Writer Name] [Supervisor Name] [Subject] [Date] History of the English Language and some of the many Factors that have influenced its Evolution Language is surely the most influential form of communication. It is the most powerful instrument an individual can have. By definition, language is the use voice sounds by human beings, organized in order to express and communicate thoughts and feelings. It is what has shaped our society into what it has become today, what has allowed our civilization to excel and progress into what is now modern day. Language has allowed the individual to communicate within a group as well as within him in order to accomplish many goals. Language gives us a means by which we can organize our ideas andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And semantic indeterminacy is the ether of attitude of language. It fills the interstices of our intentions and pervades accounts of presupposition, tense, fiction, translation, and especially, elusiveness. Language is primar ily formed through the interaction of people. This interaction could be of any nature, but in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world when English is undoubtedly the universal language, external factors play a pivotal role in English languageÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution. Therefore, it would be imperative to look at the influences of these factors on the English language. The English language of today reflects many centuries of development (Naomi 24). The political and social events that have in the course of English history so profoundly affected the English people in their national life have generally had a recognizable effect on their language. The Christianizing of Britain brought England into contact with Latin civilization and made significant additions to our vocabulary. The Scandinavian invasions resulted in a considerable mixture of the two races and their languages. The Norman Conquest made English for two centuries the language mainly of the lower classes, while the nobles and those associated wit h them used French on almost all occasions (Baugh 2). And when English once more regained supremacy as the language of all elements of the population, it greatly changed in both form and vocabulary from what it had been in the 11th century.Show MoreRelatedOn Job Training Report3246 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background The job training is an obligatory subject for all seventh semester students in English Department, Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts. They must fulfill 100 hours or about one month to do job training in the chosen institution or company. The job training program is an activity done by the students to get experiences in subjects in the real work world. The job training which is done by students in a company or an institution should be the in line with theRead MoreThe Boy Who Paint Christ Black1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMACARTHUR SCHOOL OF LEADERSHIP Course Number and Title: Academic English 2 Submitted To: ProfessorÃ¢â¬â¢s name: Kate de Vega Submitted By: StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: Jacques Jeune StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org Date of Submission: 12/12/2012 Title of Assignment: APA CERTIFICATION OF AUTHORSHIP: I certify that I am the author of this paper. This paper was prepared by me specifically for this course. I have also cited any sources from which I used data, ideas, or words, eitherRead More3521 Unit 1 Essay example10967 Words Ã |Ã 44 PagesELC3521 Professional Communication in English Unit 1 Planning project proposals Unit 1 Planning project proposals Learning outcomes At the end of the unit, you will be able to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ plan and organise project proposals explain the background, objectives and method of a project refer to the literature to justify a project proposal use appropriate language in project proposals Introduction Part of the work involved in a research project is the writing of the project proposal. The proposal isRead MoreMga Uri Ng Pagsulat5939 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesÃ February 27, 1990 Ã Ã Introduction Transpiration is the evaporation of water particles from plant surfaces, especially from the surface openings, or stomates, on leaves.Ã Stomatal transpiration accounts for most of the water loss by a plant, but some direct evaporation also takes place through the surfaces of the epidermal cells of the leaves. The amount of water given off depends somewhat upon how much water the roots of the plant have absorbed.Ã It also depends upon such environmental conditionsRead MoreIdioms in Newspaper Style7428 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pagesof foreign languages 3th coarse, 4th group Student: Grigoryan Victoria Supervisor: Nina Mnatsakanyan Yerevan 2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦3 Chapter 1: Idiom, general characteristicsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦..5 Chapter 2: Newspaper style Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦13 ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.23 BibliographyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦25 INTRODUCTION Today the English language is widely spoken throughout the world. It is the language of 21st centuryRead MoreExam Malpractice3683 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesquestions that this write up is out to tackle. To make this write up easy to understand and less ambiguous, we shall begin by defining some key terms used. 1.1 Definition of terms Examination According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, an examination is formal written, spoken of college, to see how much one knows about a subject one can do. According to Ade Kate (1993), examination are assessment of knowledge both in skills and specific area of students and overallRead MoreCultural Analysis For Doing Business8067 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagesthis paper, while adding some unique attributes to this paper as well. Anyone wishing to conduct business in Ireland, want to find out about Irish people, or have an interest in traveling to Ireland, will learn all they need to know while reading through this paper. Keywords: Ireland, culture, business, U.S. Global Business Cultural Analysis: Ireland Ireland is a little, autonomous nation situated in northwestern Europe. The nation s official name is the Republic of IrelandRead MoreMens Rea The Writing Style and Feminism of Lakambini Sitoy7010 Words Ã |Ã 29 PagesMENS REA: THE WRITING STYLE AND FEMINISM OF LAKAMBINI SITOY A Thesis Design presented to Dr. Lito Diones, Ed. D. Of the Graduate School of Literature, Communication, and Other Languages School of Arts and Sciences Cebu Normal University In Partial Fulfillment of Lit 4007 Masterpieces of Filipino Writers Farina Dianne C. Abella October 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE i TABLE OF CONTENTS ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii ABSTRACTRead MoreSharon Construction7271 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pagesemployment-growth potential, assess writing during hiring.Ã¢â¬ Consequently the Writing in the Disciplines (WID) program was developed Ã¢â¬â¢ a comprehensive curriculum which spans the various schools. There are WID classes in the Schools of Engineering, Psychology, History, Interior Design, and yes, The School of Business Administration. Regardless of the school, the WID charter calls for focus on four goals. 1. Writing throughout the term. WID courses are not writing courses, they are writing intensive coursesRead MoreStatement of Purpose23848 Words Ã |Ã 96 Pages4 IV. Language, Tone, and Voice ................................................................................................. 5 Sample Statements of Purpose ........................................................................................................ 8 I. Social Sciences ........................................................................................................................ 8 Education: Teaching English as a Second or Other Language (TESOL)Ã¢â¬ânon-native English Speaker
Drinking Alcohol Essay Alcohol and TeensFrom pastures to unsupervised blowouts at home, the social calendars of most teens are full of alcohol. Other drugs rise and fall in popularity from generation to generation, but alcohol never really goes out of style. From being worshiped by the ancient Babylonians to being forbidden to teenagers, alcohol has caused many problems. Today, drinking is the drug of choice by teens and causes most wrecks and deaths today. To understand alcohol people must first know the history of alcohol, the effects of teen drinking, and the solutions to teen drinking. Alcohol has been all around the world for centuries and has become a custom of people all over. No one knows for sure who discovered alcohol, but we know how different types of alcohol are made. Just as well, no know knows when alcohol was discovered. There are no records of the discovery or discoverers of alcohol. Although historians do know alcohol was used by primitive people and recorded as early as 10,000 years ago in the Neolithic period and by European civilization(Milgram 22). As early as 5000 B.C., the ancient Babylonians brewed, the process of making beer, their beer in religious temples because it was considered a gift from God. Beer is an alcoholic beverage made by fermentation of cereal grains such as, wheat, rye, corn, or barley; beer contains 3 to 6 percent alcohol. Besides the ancient Babylonians, the ancient Egyptians drank beer. The Egyptians called their beer hek, which was made from barley bread. The bread was crumbled into jars, covered with water, and allowed to ferment. The Egyptian pharaohs blessed this beer in the honor of the goddess of nature, Isis. Egyptians handed out free jugs of beer to peasant workers, and by no surprise drunkenness was a common problem in ancient Egypt (Nielsen 13). The strongest alcohol drinks are called liquors or spirits. An Arabian alchemist named Geber discovered liquor in the eighteenth century A.D. Geber made liquor by distillation, burning away the impurities that formed in wine during fermentation and isolated the remaining liquids. As a result, the concentrated liquid had a higher alcoholic content, which was mainly flavored alcohol and water(Milgram 65). Arnaud de Villanueva discovered liquor in Europe 500 years later, when he made brandy. Arnaud claimed that brandy would cure all humanitys diseases, prolong life, maintain youth, and clear away ill humor. In the 1600s gin, akravit, and whiskey were discovered in many other countries. Then in the 1700s, the Americans invented bourbon. Teenagers rarely think before they do many things. Many times teenagers go to big blowouts or little get togethers with their friends. Their first thought is not about death, their grades, or alcoholism; their main purpose is to get drunk fast and sober up before going home by their set curfews. At parties, teenagers have an average of five or more beers in one night. In the United States teenage drinking has become a major problem, with about 3.3 million teens as problem drinkers. One-fourth of all seventh through twelfth graders admit to drinking at least once a week(Nielson 47). About forty percent of twelfth graders said they had one episode of heavy drinking in the past two weeks. Although no one knows why teens turn to drinking, various studies show that the amount of alcohol changes by their geographical location (Nielsen 47). One major problem with teens and alcohol is death. Many teenagers go to parties and drive home thinking that everything is all right, but twenty- one percent of young drivers involved in fatal crashes have been drinking (MADD 1). On a normal weekend, an average of one teenager dies in a car crash every hour, and nearly fifty percent of these crashes were involved with alcohol. Uses of alcohol and other drugs are associated with the leading causes of death and injury among teenagers and young adults (NCADD 1). Not only do car wrecks kill teenagers, so does compulsive drinking. Alcohol, a depressant on the central nervous system, is detectable when someone begins to have slurred speech, slow reaction time, or staggered walking (Milgram 20). The more a person drinks the higher the risk of having an alcohol over dose. Some signs of an overdose are mental confusion, stupor, coma, seizures, bluish skin color, low body temperature, slow or irregular breathing, and vomiting while sleeping(Al cohol Education Program 4). If these symptoms appear, call 911 for an ambulance, but never leave the victim alone. Effectiveness of Signals Intelligence EssayOther countries can also help by raising their drinking age to 21 years of age. Many places in the world a person must be 18 to drink, but in Germany he or she only has to be 16 (Net Biz 1). Canada has made it legal for people 18 and older to drink, but they also have the stiff minimum penalties for driving under the influence. Since that law, drinking offenses have plunged twenty-three percent. Along with Canada, drunken drivers in Finland, Sweden, England, and France receive automatic jail sentences and lose their licenses for at lease a year (Neilson 61). If other countries would raise drinking to age 21, then it would be tough for teenagers to get their alcohol. It is easy for teenagers that live in states bordering Canada or Mexico to bootleg across the border to the United States. By raising the age limits to 21 in Mexico and Canada, it would help cut down on teenage drinking. Everyday teenagers drink, despite the many dangers and ri sks that they are taking every time they drink. Throughout history and probably in the future, alcohol will be the leading drug of choice for teenagers. On the other hand, teenagers in turn are becoming better educated about themselves and the risk of alcohol. Work CitedAlcohol Education Program For Minors. Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, 1994. Mothers Against Drunk Drivers. Drinking Driving and Other Drugs. Homepage. 20 June 2001. ;http://www.madd.org/under21/default.shtml;Milgram, Gail. Coping with Alcohol. New York: The Boston Publishing Group1987. NCADD. Youth, Alcohol, and Other Drugs. Homepage. 20 June 2001. ;http://www.ncadd.org/facts/youthalc.html;Net Biz Mentor. Underage Drinking. Homepage. 20 June 2001. ;http://www.nbmentor.com/law/Test/underagedrinking/index.html;Nielson, Nancy. Teen Alcoholism. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc., 1990. OBrien, Robert, Morris Chafetz, Sidney Cohen. Understanding Alcohol And Other Drugs. Vol. 1. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1999.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
QUINTO INFORME SOBRE LA SITUACIN DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN GUATEMALA CAPTULO X LOS DERECHOS DE LOS PUEBLOS INDGENAS Introduccin 1. Los derechos humanos de los individuos y pupueblos indgenas de Guatemala, aproximadamente la mitad de la poblacin total, han sido objeto de constante atencin de la Comisin. El pueblo maya, el mayor en nmero de integrantes, comprende las comunidades lingsticas Achi', Akateco, Awakateco, Ch'orti', Chuj, Itza, Ixil, Popti', Q'anjob'al, Kaqchikel, K'iche', Mam, Mopan, Poqomam, Pocomchi', Q'eqchi', Sakapulteko, Sipakapense, Tektiteko, Tz'utujil y Uspanteco. La poblacin indgena esta tambin integrada por los pocos sobrevivientes del antiguo pueblo xinca, y por el pueblo garfuna, este ltimo de races indgenas y africanas ubicado en areas cercanas a la costa atlntica de Guatemala. 2. Por su conformacin poblacional Guatemala es un Estado multitnico, multilinge y pluricultural. 3. La poblacin de Guatemala es en su mayora rural. El 65% de los habitantes residen en zonas rurales, y de ellos 52% son indgenas, mayora que es ms pronunciada en los departamentos alejados de la capital. Los indgenas constituyen algo menos de la mitad de la poblacin urbana. 4. Los indgenas en Guatemala histricamente han sido discriminados tnicamente, constituyen gran parte de la poblacin pobre o en extrema pobreza y son mayora en los departamentos con los ms altos ndices de exclusin social. Lo mismo ocurre en asentamientos urbanos marginales. Sin embargo, rurales o urbanos, mantienen en todas las regiones, una actividad y organizacin social intensa y una cultura rica y en continua adaptacin a las exigencias de los cambios histricos, defendiendo y desarrollando su identidad cultural. A. Marco jurdico 5. La legislacin en Guatemala contiene una serie de normas especficas y dispersas, de rango constitucional y legal, sobre los pueblos indgenas. La tendencia legislativa de la ltima dcada en esta materia se ha caracterizado por incorporar en el ordenamiento legal normas de reconocimiento y proteccin en favor de los indgenas, en relacin por ejemplo con la proteccin del nio o la nia indgena, la promocin de la educacin bilinge intercultural, la creacin de instituciones de proteccin y defensa de la mujer indgena, entre otras. 6. La Constitucin Poltica de la Repblica reconoce que el Estado est formado por diversos grupos tnicos y asegura reconocer, respetar y promover sus formas de vida, costumbres y tradiciones. Proteccin a grupos tnicos. Guatemala est formada por diversos grupos tnicos entre los que figuran los grupos indgenas de ascendencia maya. El Estado reconoce, respeta y promueve sus formas de vida, costumbres, tradiciones, formas de organizacin social, el uso del traje indgena en hombre y mujeres, idiomas y dialectos.  7. En 1997 entr en vigencia en Guatemala el Convenio 169, sobre pueblos indgenas y tribales en pases independientes, de la Organizacin Internacional del Trabajo (O.I.T.) que es el instrumento internacional de derechos humanos especfico ms relevante para los derechos de los indgenas, que establece que : Los pueblos indgenas y tribales debern gozar plenamente de los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, sin obstculos ni discriminacin. Las disposiciones de este Convenio se aplicarn sin discriminacin a los hombres y mujeres de esos pueblos. B. LOS INDGENAS GUATEMALTECOS Y EL CONFLICTO ARMADO (1962-1996) 8. La cifra total de vctimas de la violencia politica en este perodo ha sido estimada por investigaciones y estudios en ms de doscientas mil, sea personas muertas o desaparecidas forzosamente, consecuencia del conflicto armado en Guatemala ocurrido entre los aos 1962 y 1996. La gran mayora de las vctimas fueron guatemalteco-mayas. 9. Los guatemalteco-mayas representaron el 83% de las vctimas plenamente identificadas por la Comisin para el Esclarecimiento Histrico, (CEH) en su trabajo de documentacin de las violaciones de los derechos humanos y hechos de violencia vinculados al enfrentamiento armado. En su labor de documentacin la CEH identific 42.275 vctimas hombres, mujeres y nios de las que 23.671 fueron vctimas de ejecuciones arbitrarias y 6.159 vctimas de desaparicin forzada. 10. La poltica contrainsurgente en Guatemala se caracteriz en varios perodos por acciones militares destinadas a la destruccin de grupos y comunidades como tales, as como al desplazamiento geogrfico de comunidades indgenas cuando se las consideraba posibles auxiliares de la guerrilla. En el perodo ms violento del conflicto armado (1978-1983), bajo las presidencias de los generales Romeo Lucas Garca (1978-1982) y Efran Ros Montt (1982-1983) los operativos militares se concentraron en Quich, Huehuetenango, Chimaltenango, Alta y Baja Verapaz, costa sur y ciudad de Guatemala. 11. Las masacres en las aldeas Plan Snchez y Dos Erres ocurridas en 1982 son ejemplos dolorosos de la poltica de exterminio en contra de las comunidades indgenas. El exterminio
Monday, March 16, 2020
Exam Study Computer Concepts Essays Exam Study Computer Concepts Essay Exam Study Computer Concepts Essay Computer Concepts Exam Study for University of LA VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol): Hardware, software, and protocols used to make call over the internet. Convergence: Basically combining devices into one device, Ex) mp3 and cameras on cell phones. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s convergence. File: A named collection of data. Digital: Discrete Data Super Computer: The fastest and expensive computer Analog Data: Continuous data EBSDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code): A method by which computers represent character data. Machine Code: Program instructions written in binary code that the computer can execute directly. Registers: Area in microprocessors where data or instructions are moved so they can be processed. Word Size: The number of bits a CPU can manipulate at one time. Volatile: A term that describes data that can exist only with a power source. Shareware: They have a trial but once its over, they need to pay for it. Open source software: Software that includes the source data so programmers can modify and edit it. Executable file: File containing instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task. Multiuser Operating System: Allows a computer to deal with multiple processing requests. Bootstrap Program: Loads and initializes operating system Incremental Backup: A backup that contains files that changed since the last backup Differential Backup: A copy of all the files that changed since the last full backup HomePNA and HomePLC: HomePNA uses cables and HomePLC uses electricity wires. WIMAX: Fixed wireless internet and range is 30 miles. TCP: Responsible for establishing a data connection between two host and breaking data into packets. Asymmetric internet connection: Downstream differs from upstream. Symmetric Internet connection: both the same
Saturday, February 29, 2020
A Definition Of Monopoly Economics Essay Monopoly is an industry that has only one firm that sells a good which has no close substitutes. Monopoly firms also represent industries because there are no other firms in the market. Products that are from monopoly market are electricity, water, cable television, local telephone services and many more. Examples of monopoly firm in Malaysia is Tenaga Nasional Berhad, TNBÃ¢â¬â¢s unique position as a monopoly in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Peninsular Malaysia. TNB is the only firm that provides us electricity to every building in Malaysia. Another monopoly firm in Malaysia that only provide sewerage services is Indah Water Konsortium Sdn Bhd. Indah Water Konsortium is the only firm in Malaysia that mainly responsible for operating and maintaining the public sewage treatment plants and network of underground sewerage pipelines. Characteristics of Monopoly Market One seller and large number of buyers Monopoly market characteristics are they is onl y one producer or seller in the market and there are many buyers. Therefore, the firm had the power to control the whole market whether it is from the angle of determining the price or the quantity of production. A monopolist has the power to determine the level of price because there is no competition from other firms. Therefore, if the monopolist intends to sell a bigger quantity, it has to reduce the price. This means that the monopolist can only control the price or the quantity of sales, and not both at once. No close substitution Furthermore, monopoly firmÃ¢â¬â¢s goods have no substitutes, its means consumers have no choice other than what is produced by the monopolist and they canÃ¢â¬â¢t find any substitute of the product. For example, Telekom Malaysia is a firms that provide home telephone services which has no close substitutes but if the buyer can find another firms that provide home telephone service therefore the product is no longer in monopoly. Restriction of entry of new firms All the competitors are prevented from entering the market due to strict barriers to the entry of new firm. To restrict the entry of new firms into the industry, there are barriers to entry that are natural or legal restrictions. There are no competition faces by monopolist is because of barriers of entry. Advertising A monopolist doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to advertise their product or services to increase sales because monopolist had the right to control the market and consumers know where to obtain the products and they have no choice to buy from other producer. Monopoly firms that provide local public utilities such as water, electricity and home phone services doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to advertise since they are the only firms that provide it and customers had no choice to buy it from another firm. Intro to Question 2 It is traditional to divide industries into categories according to the degree of competition that exists between the firms within the industry. There are four such categories. First of all is perfect competition is the market where there is a large number of buyers and seller. The goods sold in the market are homogenous where most of the goods are alike and most likely the same. Therefore, sellers can easily enter and exit from the market. Most of the agricultural goods are included in perfect competition market such as vegetables, fruits, rice, coffee beans, wheat, primary commodities, gold, silver and others.